The microbial microbial can be used to predict common bowel cancer, the second most common woman with cancer, and third for male secondary cancer.
An international study by researchers from Brazil has found a link between changes in colorectal cancer and microbial patterns, which do not depend on dietary habits of populations studied. The discovery opens the way to develop non-invasive tests that are capable of predicting the outbreak of disease.
The study is published on April 1 in Nature Medicine. His first author is Andrew Maltez Thomas, São Paulo (USP), Brazil, with a bioinformatics doctor. Sao Paulo's Research Foundation supported Thomas – FAPESP, a research fellowship from the Italian Trent University.
In one of the largest surveys on the subject, researchers combined metagenomics, bioinformatics and machine learning (artificial intelligence) to show cancer of colon cancer in Canada, 969 people. , France, Germany, Japan and the United States.
The findings have identified microorganisms associated with cancer of manifolds detected in all the research populations and have been identified in the microbial metabolism (microorganisms metabolite patterns) that can be used to predict the appearance of the disease. The research had two important results. It is one of the varieties found in a specific species of colonic and specific species of the Colombian species found in the intestine. It is a correlation between other colonic cancer and a gene of microbiologic enzyme that depletes the rocks of choline, which is essential for vitamin B group foods.
In the study, the highest levels of Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial species have been found in patients with colon cancer. This bacterium is commonly found in the regions of the mouth, and the acidity of other gastrointestinal tracts was considered serious.
"Oral bacterial deaths tend to travel to patients with colon cancer in the intestines. This migration can cause inflammation of the intestine and cause tumors," said Thomas. "However, we do not know the real cause of migration, the presence of these bacteria in the intestine and the cancer of the skin, and that it deserves more research."
Another finding, a cancerous enzyme enhancement in the use of trimethylamine-lyase (cutC) gene gene expression in colon cancer patients in the fecal, carcinogenic link between the gut microbial and fat diet, reinforces the opportunity indicated by previous studies. "When enzyme gets rid of the colony, when it's abundant in diets with a lot of red meat and other fatty foods, it releases acetaldehyde, a known cancer," said Thomas.
In the study, the researchers used data on the composition and abundance of bacteria found in 969 fecal samples. Clinics and hospitals can be used to develop a simple method of analysis that is widely used, with statistically significant bacteria selected.
"The results of our bacterial species were comparable to those of all species using analyzes. This is an important step in the development of a simple diagnostic tool that removes the need for sequencing of the whole microbial," said Thomas. .
The association is not a causal link
He has been investigating the links between low microbial and human health in the last ten years, but an innovative study is considering the bacteria as a marker for developmental illness.
"Markers are usually looking for a direct link to tumor cells, we use another concept, our analysis is based on hundreds of bacterial changes that live in the smallest bacterial group, a disease," said Emmanuel Dias-Neto, at the AC Camargo Cancer Center International Research Center (CIPE), researcher and co-author of the article.
The DNA sequencings obtained from the microdial microbe have been able to identify the bacteria in each fecal sample, to measure the quantity of each bacterium and to identify the variants of genomes that could be linked to different outcomes. cancer.
It should be underlined, however, that the study does not show that the modification of gut microorganisms is due to the effect of colon cancer.
"We have detected an association, but this does not necessarily lead to causal linking. It is a question whether the specific bacterium can cause cancer or cancer in the colon pipeline in different environments, so that we can induce bacterial ones. We still do not treat colorectal cancer It is essential to research therapy to aid in the development of therapeutic therapy, "said João Carlos Setubal, a full professor at the University of Sao Paulo's Biochemistry Department. Bioinformatic program and co-author of the article. Setubal and Dias-Neto supervised Dr. Thomas's research.
Researchers say that colon cancer may be the largest, based on hepatic skin and many populations. Research by the University of Trento has undergone four studies and two data from research.
They have been able to identify enzymes and bacteria with seven research data and predict the development of colon cancer as well as minimize microbial growth. The other two research data used 200 samples to validate their findings.
"DNA DNA microbiota and DNA DNA samples for human separation were a means of identifying and quantifying microorganisms and their genes," said Thomas. "We extracted and sequenced the DNA from the Fecal samples, then we used computational data to analyze data, which is why we identified and quantified species and gene abundance."
As data came from different research, researchers used sophisticated statistical methods to analyze these groups.
"We know how to predict the predictive results of the meta-analytic statistical methods and machine learning techniques," said Thomas.
The discovery has been validated by Nicola Segata, a computational biologist and overseas inspector at the University of Trent and has carried out an analysis of the German Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Germany, on the relationship between microbial and cancer. In the Nature Medicine issue, an EMBL study article is published.
"While the articles were being prepared, we had a lot of information and information about another group in a partnership to strengthen our findings. Although we used machine learning techniques and different statistical methods, we concluded the prediction of gut microbe, the presence of colon colorectal cancer in different populations and studies, said Thomas.