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SARS-CoV-2 affects testicles, reducing hormones and sperm quality, according to studies

Publicado em 05 setembro 2021

Following, since the beginning of last year, male patients who had Covid-19, andrologist Jorge Hallak, professor at FM-USP (Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo) and coordinator of the Study Group on Men’s Health at the IEA -USP (Institute of Advanced Studies at USP), began to observe that the results of their fertility and hormonal exams remain altered even months after they recover from the disease.

Despite being an initial test and not being able to diagnose fertility or infertility, the sperm count of several patients has indicated, for example, that sperm motility — the ability of sperm to move and fertilize the egg, whose normal index is above 50%—fell to between 8% and 12% and remained at that level nearly a year after being infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Hormonal tests indicate that the testosterone levels of many of them also plummeted after the illness. While the normal level of this hormone is 300 to 500 nanograms per deciliter of blood (ng/dL), in patients who had Covid-19 this index ranged below 200 and often stayed between 70 and 80 ng/dL

“We have increasingly seen prolonged changes in the quality of semen and hormones in patients who had Covid-19, even in those who had a mild or asymptomatic condition,” says Hallak to the FAPESP Agency.

Some studies carried out by the researcher in collaboration with colleagues from the Department of Pathology at FM-USP, published in recent months, have helped to elucidate these observations made in clinical practice.

The researchers found that SARS-CoV-2 also infects the testes, impairing the ability of male gonads to produce sperm and hormones.

“It is very worrying how the coronavirus affects the testicles, even in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic cases of the disease. Among all the testicle-damaging agents I’ve studied to date, SARS-CoV-2 seems to be very active,” says Hallak.

“Each pathology has particularities that practice and experience show us. SARS-CoV-2 has the characteristic of affecting spermatogenesis. We are discovering the mechanisms involved, such as persistently very low progressive motility and well-altered morphology, with no significant change in sperm concentration,” he says.

In a study of 26 patients who had Covid-19, researchers found through ultrasound examinations that more than half of them had inflammation in the epididymis — the structure responsible for storing sperm and where they acquire the ability to move.

The patients have an average age of 33 years and were treated at the Hospital das Clínicas at FM-USP and at the Androscience Institute of Science and Innovation in Andrology. The results of the study, supported by FAPESP, were published in the journal Andrology.

“Unlike a classic bacterial infection or by other viruses, such as mumps, which causes swelling and commonly discomfort or pain in the testicles in one third of those affected, epididymitis caused by the coronavirus is painless and cannot be diagnosed by palpation [exame físico] or with the naked eye,” explains Hallak.

Therefore, according to him, it would be interesting to teach the self-examination of the testicles as a public health policy in the post-pandemic.

“It is ideal that adolescents, young adults and men of age or with reproductive desire, after being infected with SARS-CoV-2, seek a urologist or andrologist and make an appointment with measurement of testicular volume, measurement of testosterone and other hormones , in addition to semen analysis with sperm function tests, followed by an ultrasound examination with color Doppler, to check for any type of testicular involvement that can affect fertility and hormone production”, suggests Hallak.

“These individuals must be followed up for one to two years after the infection, at least, as we still don’t know how the disease evolves”, he points out.

Testicular cell invasion

Another study recently published by the same group of researchers and also supported by FAPESP indicated that SARS-CoV-2 invades all types of testicular cells, causing lesions that can impair hormonal function and male fertility.

Through a project coordinated by FM-USP professors Paulo Saldiva and Marisa Dolhnikoff, minimally invasive autopsy techniques were used to extract testicular tissue samples from 11 men, aged between 32 and 88 years, who died at the HC-FM- USP due to severe Covid-19.

The results of the analyzes indicated a series of testicular lesions that can be attributed to inflammatory alterations that reduce the production of sperm (spermatogenesis) and hormones.

“What immediately caught our attention in these patients who died from Covid-19 was the drastic decrease in spermatogenesis. Even the youngest, of childbearing age, had practically no sperm,” says Amaro Nunes Duarte Neto, an infectious disease specialist and pathologist at FM-USP and the Adolfo Lutz Institute and coordinator of the study.

According to the researcher, some of the probable causes of the decrease in spermatogenesis in these patients were lesions caused by the virus in the testicular parenchyma vessels, with the presence of thrombi, which led to hypoxia —lack of oxygenation in the tissues—, in addition to fibrosis that obstruct the tubules seminiferous, where sperm are produced.

One of the probable reasons for the hormonal decrease is the loss of Leydig cells, which are found between the seminiferous tubules and produce testosterone.

“The functions of the testes to produce sperm and male sex hormones are independent, but there is an interconnection between them. If the production of hormones by Leydig cells is impaired, fertility will also be reduced”, says Duarte Neto.

Some of the symptoms of testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism) are muscle loss, tiredness, irritability, memory loss, and weight gain, which can be mistaken for the long-term effects of Covid-19.

“An important part of this clinical picture is surely related to a low testicular function. But this has not yet been addressed because patients do not have pain and it is not usual to measure hormones or analyze sperm after they recover from Covid-19”, warns Hallak.

The researchers plan to conduct a follow-up study of male patients who have had the disease to assess how long it takes for testicular damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 to be reversed naturally or through drug administration.

“We still don’t know if these testicular injuries can be reversed and how long it will take for them to happen,” says Hallak.

The researcher’s main concerns are in relation to men of reproductive age, adolescents and prepubescents, for whom there is still no data on testicular damage caused by Covid-19. It is not known what the impacts will be on puberty in relation to the fertile capacity, whether hormone production will be affected in a transient, prolonged or definitive way, and what is the degree of irreversible residual damage.

As there are no SARS-CoV-2 pre-infection data for each individual, prospective studies should include a control group for comparison purposes, suggests Hallak.

“These individuals may have infertility problems and hormonal changes in the future and not know that this could have been caused by the Covid-19 infection, because they had mild symptoms or were asymptomatic”, he ponders.

Increased male infertility

The researcher estimates that Covid-19 could cause an increase in male infertility. Currently, between 15% and 18% of couples struggle to conceive—due to male problems in 52% of cases.

This scenario can trigger a greater search for assisted reproduction techniques which, according to him, is sometimes rushed in Brazil for male causes, without adequate and standardized initial assessment and often without establishing the causative diagnosis initial and without enough time to propose approaches based on the best cost-benefit and the application of specific treatments that can cure the cause or restore the natural fertile capacity.

“We will have to be very careful with post-pandemic assisted reproduction of Covid-19, as the consequences of this in the months following the infection are not known”, highlights Hallak.

Since SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in all testicular cell types, which participate in all stages of spermatogenesis, it is not known whether the virus may also be present in sperm from patients who have had Covid-19 and if they remain quiescent in tissues months after they have recovered from the disease.

“These sperm may have been affected by the virus and, ideally, one should preventively wait at least one spermatogenesis cycle – around 90 days – before proceeding with artificial reproduction techniques, in which sperm selection is done by analyzes by microscopy and not by the process of natural selection tested over millions of years”, says Hallak.

“We have seen very high DNA lesions caused by coronaviruses, around 60% to 80%, while the normal range is up to 25% and, acceptable, up to 30%”, he compares.

Another concern of the researcher is the replacement of testosterone in these patients who had Covid-19 and hormonal drop, which, according to him, is an unnecessary measure in the immediate post-Covid-19 period, especially for young adults and of reproductive age.

“Testosterone replacement in an already affected patient will further inhibit testicular function. The testes have repair mechanisms to produce hormones again, and there are drug treatments that increase the natural production of steroid hormones, progressively restoring the individual’s intrinsic testicular function. This will also depend on whether Leydig cells were injured and to what degree, which is something we don’t know yet”, he ponders.

“At the USP Faculty of Medicine, we are bringing together specialists from various medical specialties to study a group of 749 male patients who had Covid-19 who will undergo a first evaluation over the next four years with the objective of obtaining more knowledge about the post-Covid-19 syndrome,” says Hallak.

The article Radiological patterns of incidental epididymitis in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients revealed by color Doppler ultrasound (DOI: 10.1111/and.13973), by Felipe Carneiro, Thiago A. Teixeira, Felipe S. Bernardes, Marcelo S Pereira, Giovanna Milani, Amaro N. Duarte-Neto, Esper G. Kallas, Paulo HN Saldiva, Maria C. Chammas and Jorge Hallak, can be read at: .13973.

The article Testicular pathology in fatal COVID-19: a descriptive autopsy study (DOI: 10.1111/andr.13073), by Amaro N. Duarte-Neto, Thiago A. Teixeira, Elia G. Caldini, Cristina T. Kanamura, Michele S. Gomes-Gouvêa, Angela BG dos Santos, Renata AA Monteiro, João RR Pinho, Thais Mauad, Luiz FF da Silva, Paulo HN Saldiva, Marisa Dolhnikoff, Katia RM Leite and Jorge Hallak, can be read at: https://onlinelibrary.

The article SARS-CoV-2 and its relationship with the genitourinary tract: Implications for male reproductive health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic (DOI: 10.1111/andr.12896), by Jorge Hallak, Thiago A. Teixeira, Felipe S. Bernardes, Felipe Carneiro, Sergio AS Duarte, Juliana R. Pariz, Sandro C. Esteves, Esper Kallas and Paulo HN Saldiva, can be read at:

And the article Viral infections and implications for male reproductive health (DOI: 10.4103/aja.aja_82_20), by Thiago A Teixeira, Yasmin C Oliveira, Felipe S Bernardes, Esper G Kallas, Amaro N Duarte-Neto, Sandro C Esteves, Joël R Drevet and Jorge Hallak, can be read at:

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