Gluten is a protein complex found in grains such as wheat, rye and barley. Characterized by the elastic texture of the dough, bread and bread rolls can be baked into various shapes, maintaining flexibility and unfriendlyness. Also, when combined with preservatives, it extends the shelf life of bread at room temperature.
However, gluten intolerance has become a global epidemic and gluten-free products are becoming more and more popular. The problem is that most of what is available on the market does not meet consumer expectations in terms of appearance, aroma, flavor and durability. Vanessa Diascapriles, a nutritionist and professor at the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) in Santos, is pursuing a research line in Brazil focused on how to enhance gluten-free products.
Her work is supported by FAPESP through grants from the Young Investigator and Multiuser Equipment. As a result of this research, 14 articles have been published in scientific journals so far. The latest one is posted on Foods.
“Currently, three conditions are recognized as the basis for prescribing. Gluten-free diet: Celiac disease, Wheat allergy, and non-celiac gluten hypersensitivity. Celiac disease is a chronic dysfunction of genetic origin that affects 1.4% of the world’s population and can cause polyphyletic disorders with serious complications if left untreated. Wheat allergy is an immune response to wheat proteins. Non-celiac gluten hypersensitivity is a condition that can be caused by other ingredients in wheat, such as gluten or rapidly fermenting carbohydrates. Unlike celiac disease, it is not an autoimmune disease and its symptoms are very similar, but it is not associated with such serious complications, “Caprice told Agência FAPESP.
Gluten-free available to meet the demands of people in these conditions, as well as the demands of so many consumers who want to completely or partially eliminate gluten from their diet for health-related or crazy reasons. The quantity of products is increasing remarkably and they are rapidly becoming a global trend, not a niche market.
“But the development of these products is a major technical challenge,” Capriles said. “Bread made with flour It has been an important human food for thousands of years. The impression of sensation it causes is deeply rooted in people’s lifestyles. Therefore, it is important to develop enhanced versions of these products. According to market research, consumers are dissatisfied with the appearance, aroma, variety and convenience of currently available products. “
In addition to lacking sensual quality, gluten-free bread is often nutritionally poor. “Generally speaking, it’s made from refined starch such as corn, potatoes, and rice bran combined with cassava starch,” she said. “It’s low in fiber, protein, vitamins and minerals, and relatively high in fat. In many countries it’s not rich in micronutrients.”
The ongoing research at UNIFESP has three goals: to improve the overall nutritional value of gluten-free products, to improve consumer acceptance, and to seek technically feasible solutions.
“We used a variety of techniques to create and optimize these products and obtained over 15 formulations that seemed optimal. These products contain 50% to 100% gluten-free whole grains. Because it contains, it contains a lot of fiber. More proteins, vitamins and minerals. ” “Qualitative consumer surveys gluten -Free whole wheat bread products provide the same receptivity as bread made from regular wheat flour. “
The group studied a variety of raw materials, including whole grains from grains such as rice, sorghum, and millet. Pseudocereals such as amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat. Chickpeas, dried beans, pine nuts, etc.
They tried to use plantain to increase the fiber content, but with positive results. Plantain is a fibrous material made from the seed shells of the plant Plantagoovata. For every 100 grams, 80 grams of soluble fiber is supplied. It is hygroscopic and expands to form a gelatinous mass when mixed with water. Popular with consumers looking for functional foods, it often helps treat constipation, diabetes and atherosclerosis.
“We have succeeded in producing bread using 17% psyllium. Because it absorbs water, dough made from psyllium can be shaped into various shapes like rolls and bread made from conventional flour.” Says Caprice. “Recent studies have shown surprisingly good results in associating plantain with chickpea flour. In addition to its high receptivity and nutritional value, its benefits include a low glycemic response. [it does not raise blood sugar significantly] Increases the feeling of fullness of healthy people. Another very interesting point is that it remained tolerable even after being stored at room temperature for 7 days. “
She added that the next steps would include finding industry partners to transfer the technology and collaborating in research and development.
Who really needs to be gluten free
For more information:
Camilly Fratelli et al, Psyllium Improves Quality and Shelf Life of Gluten-Free Bread, Food (2021). DOI: 10.3390 / foods10050954
Quote: The study revolutionized with gluten-free prescriptions, more palatable and nutritious than obtained on July 21, 2021 from https: //phys.org/news/2021-07-gluten-free-palatable-nutritious-bread Create high bread (July 21, 2021). html
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