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Research innovates with gluten-free formulas to make more palatable and nutritious bread

Publicado em 21 julho 2021

Por José Tadeu Arantes, da Agência FAPESP

Gluten is a protein complex found in grains such as wheat, rye and barley. Characterized by the elastic texture of the dough, bread and bread rolls can be baked into various shapes, maintaining flexibility and unfriendlyness. Also, when combined with preservatives, it extends the shelf life of bread at room temperature.

However, gluten intolerance has become a worldwide pandemic and gluten-free products are becoming more popular. The problem is that most of what is available on the market does not meet consumer expectations in terms of appearance, aroma, flavor and durability.A research line focused on how to enhance gluten-free products is being pursued in Brazil by nutritionists Vanessa Diascapriles, Professor of the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) in Santos.

Her work is supported by FAPESP Young investigator And Multi-user device Subsidy. As a result of this research, 14 articles have been published in scientific journals so far.The latest is Release To Food..

“Currently, three conditions are recognized as the basis for prescribing a gluten-free diet: celiac disease, wheat allergy, and non-celiac gluten hypersensitivity. Celiac disease is a chronic dysfunction of genetic origin and 1.4% of the world’s population. Wheat allergy is an immune response to wheat protein. Non-celiac gluten hypersensitivity is gluten or rapid. A condition that can be caused by other components of wheat, such as carbohydrates that ferment into. Unlike celiac disease, it is not an autoimmune disease and its symptoms are very similar, but such serious complications. It has nothing to do with, “said Capriles. Agência FAPESP..

Gluten-free available to meet the demands of people in these conditions, as well as the demands of so many consumers who want to completely or partially eliminate gluten from their diet for health-related or crazy reasons. The quantity of products is increasing remarkably and they are rapidly becoming a global trend, not a niche market.

“But the development of these products is a major technical challenge,” Capriles said. “Bread made from wheat flour has been an important human food for thousands of years. The sensory impression it causes is deeply rooted in people’s lifestyles, so we develop expanded versions of these products. It’s important. According to market research, consumers are dissatisfied with the look, fragrance, variety and convenience of currently available products. “

In addition to lacking erotic quality, gluten-free bread is often nutritionally poor. “Generally speaking, it’s made from refined starch such as corn, potatoes, and rice bran combined with cassava starch,” she said. “It’s low in fiber, protein, vitamins and minerals, and relatively high in fat. In many countries it’s not rich in micronutrients.”

The ongoing research at UNIFESP has three goals: to improve the overall nutritional value of gluten-free products, to improve consumer acceptance, and to seek technically feasible solutions.

“We used a variety of techniques to create and optimize these products and obtained over 15 formulations that seemed optimal. Because they contain 50% to 100% gluten-free whole grains. It’s high in fiber and high in protein, vitamins and minerals, “says Capriles. “According to a qualitative consumer survey, gluten-free whole wheat bread products are as receptive as bread made from regular wheat flour.”

The group studied a variety of raw materials, including whole grains from grains such as rice, sorghum, and millet. Pseudocereals such as amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat. Chickpeas, dried beans, pine nuts, etc.

They tried to use plantain to increase the fiber content, but with positive results.Plantain is a fibrous material made from the shells of plant seeds Plantain.. For every 100 grams, 80 grams of soluble fiber is supplied. It is hygroscopic and expands to form a gelatinous mass when mixed with water. Popular with consumers looking for functional foods, it often helps treat constipation, diabetes and atherosclerosis.

“We have succeeded in making bread with 17% psyllium. To absorb water, dough made from psyllium can be shaped into different shapes, like traditional flour rolls and bread. It can be molded, “says Caprice. “Recent studies have associated psyllium with chickpea flour with surprisingly good results. In addition to its high receptivity and nutritional value, its benefits include a low glycemic response. [ it does not raise blood sugar significantly ] Increases the feeling of fullness of healthy people. Another very interesting point is that it remained tolerable even after being stored at room temperature for 7 days. “

She added that the next steps would include finding industry partners to transfer the technology and collaborating in research and development.

The article “Psyllium Improves Gluten-Free Bread Quality and Shelf Life” www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/10/5/954..