The substitution of diesel oil with LNG for cargo transportation in São Paulo would possibly lead to a significant reduction in fuel costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions—as well as other pollutants—in São Paulo State, Brazil. This was presented in a study by the Research Centre for Gas Innovation (RCGI) supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation—FAPESP—and Shell.
“The biggest benefits, both in terms of pollution reductions and in prices of the fuels being discussed herein, are perceived in São Paulo and Campinas, which are regions with greater potential for substituting diesel oil with LNG and where diesel oil is more expensive than it is in the rest of the State. Our results show that in São Paulo, LNG can be up to 60% cheaper than diesel oil,” said Dominique Mouette, Professor in the School of Arts, Sciences, and Humanities at the University of São Paulo (EACH-USP), in an RCGI statement. Mouette is principal author of the article and leader of the RCGI project focusing on the viability of a Blue Corridor in São Paulo State.
The objective of the study, which resulted in an article published in Science of The Total Environment, was to evaluate the economic and environmental benefits of substituting diesel oil with LNG for the purpose of establishing a Blue Corridor in the state.
To analyze the substitution of diesel with LNG, the investigation considered four scenarios. “Within the best scenario, the use of LNG would reduce fuel costs by up to 40%; equivalent CO2 emissions [a measure used to compare the potential heating effect among several greenhouse gases (GHGs), also known as CO2-eq] by 5.2%; particulate materials by 88%; nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 75%; and would eliminate hydrocarbon emissions,” states Pedro Gerber Machado, a researcher at the University of São Paulo’s Institute of Energy and Environment and coauthor of the article.
“The methodology initially considered two contexts: one for the geographical regions served by gas pipelines, called the Restricted Scenario (RS), and another covering the 16 administrative regions of the state, called the State Scenario (SS). Both scenarios had different versions of the Blue Corridor, with 3,100 and 8,900 kilometers of roads, respectively,” Machado explained.
According to Machado, in the case of each scenario, two forms of LNG distribution were considered: the first one considered a centralized liquefaction with road distribution and generated two subscenarios, a State Scenario with Centralized Liquefaction (SSCL) and a Restricted Scenario with Centralized Liquefaction (RSCL). The second would perform the liquefaction locally in the region where it would be used, which would eliminate the need for distributing LNG on highways. From this scenario, two more subscenarios were derived: the State Scenario with Hybrid Local and Central Liquefaction (SSHL) and the Restricted Scenario with Local Liquefaction (RSLL).
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