Market Scam Carbon Credits can be summarized in this: Industrialized countries to poor countries buy their rights to pollute for little money with which hamper their development and progress in exchange for pollute even more than they already do. To this can be added that the market is controlled by the Rosctchild
Misteri1963 - 12/02/2018
So pollute more for slowing the development of poor countries and make some + rich yet ... the usual: Zion and his henchmen. Armak of Odelot
¿Carbon credits for whom?
Amyra El Khalili
When we discussed the environment we can not deal with that fundamental right as if it were based on negotiated contracts and certain rules between product closed doors.
On the contrary, such negotiations should take place with the collective of society. If society does not adhere, no socio-environmental project you can achieve.
Mercadológico analyze the design and criticizing international agreements in its operational structure, financial performance, it does not mean condemning the struggles of the environmental movement and human rights to failure, but point their possible failures.
Few people can criticize this mechanism because, in general, project engineering who knows the financial market does not know, and who knows the financial market even know yet what environmental management.
To build a socio-environmental economics, respecting cultural, multi-racial and religious differences, you needed a new consciousness for a new economic model for Latin America-Caribbean that draws on the tripod education, information and communication.
" It is not enough to teach the man a specialty, because well be turned a usable machine and not a personality. You need to purchase a feeling, a practical sense of what is worth being undertaken, of what is beautiful, what is morally right. "
Dealing directly with large international speculation and knowing that game that much is gained as lost millions in one day, we studied the direct relationship between wars and the financial market: observe that whenever gold prices, oil and currency oscillate abruptly war breaks out somewhere.
When a few are earning a lot of money on one side, the other proportion are dying to hundreds of thousands. These are issues involving the political and economic environment and sustainable development.
Therefore, sustainability represents new challenges, among which to enforce ethics in macro-economic relations, determining factor between war and peace.
"In the long term we are all dead!" - this phrase Keynes has become a mantra among traders of commodities and derivatives (derivative assets) in the capital markets.
For years we have trained young people so that their businesses were quick, with very short term results because, in the long term we are all dead.
Now project that phrase in the imagination of those brokers for operations that need 30, 40 to the same 200 years since to mitigate (reduce pollution) can not happen overnight for the day.
Environment has another logic. In the end, you need to preserve for present and future generations primarily for.
However, this logic does not beat with the mathematics of a system arranged in the morning buying and selling in the afternoon. Everything is very fast. And the world of finance trillion tour without even having time to make up the checks.
It happens that "sustainability" has infinite variables ranging from climate change to political and financial interests to exchange energy, manufacturing and standardization criteria matrices (certification, classification, logistics, etc.) of agricultural and industrial products.
Transformations of postures and behaviors on the part of society that involves a thorough debate on production and proactive consumer, environmental and social awareness, which allies the discussion in public policies require tax and fiscal considerable reforms and strict regulation of the financial system it meets all these conditions.
Latin America in the Caribbean is the highest biodiversity on the planet. There is still plenty of water and fertile land in other continents no longer there. However, the same concerns that Arabs have the wars in the Middle East, will be ours, precisely because of the scarcity of water.
In Cochabamba there was social unrest because of the water.
Legislative reform in Uruguay for water returned to the hands of government and society was necessary because it had been privatized.
Espirito Santo, Brazil was one of the first recorded cases of death in dispute over water. Well, water is a natural resource for public use called either diffuse; Therefore it belongs to all and the nation. Private initiative can not simply encircle a watershed and believed her own.
First of all, it should provide enough water for the population, for living beings and to ensure food security (agriculture). Only the surplus could be sold, hypothetically, if water security guarantees.
Another problem to be faced is the culture of servitude to the international financial system, the passive acceptance of a submission that we always became victims of usury capital, which only makes to promote endemic corruption that is rife among us.
It does not summarize, therefore, in the financial interest of some investors to apply their resources in an economic instrument to give them compensation, such as the emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere with the buying and selling of credits (emission trading).
Goes through an extensive adaptation of knowledge and disponibilizada information so that everyone can accompany these economic and financial changes.
Understand that what you want to eliminate greenhouse effect gases -the can not generate an exponential market competition to stimulate the production of more pollution.
Mercadológico analyze the design and criticizing international agreements such as the Clean Development Mechanism (2) in its operational structure, financial performance, does not mean condemning the Kyoto Protocol (3) to failure, but point their possible failures. Few people can criticize this mechanism because, in general, project engineering who knows the financial market does not know, and who knows the financial market even know yet what environmental management.
When dealing with the environment you can not be treated this fundamental right like it's a business product, a commodity, based on negotiated contracts and certain rules closed-door meetings among peers. On the contrary, such negotiations should take place with the collective of society. If society does not adhere, no socio-environmental project you can achieve.
When soy is exported, soil, water, energy, biodiversity, blood and sweat of those who produce and suffer the harsh sun plantation is also sold. The study of the NGO WWF (4) shows Brazil as a leader in the ranking of countries importing "virtual water" (5) Agricultural: exports 91 billion cubic meters each year, but imports 199 billion.
The balance is an annual import liquid 108 billion. On the other hand, the WWF claims that Brazil spends 5.7 billion cubic meters of water in the production of goods that are consumed in Germany, mainly coffee, soybeans and meat. That condition is not considered as a formal data in the standardization criteria for buying and selling commodity. Exemplifying, every tonne of soybeans sold involves the use of two thousand tons of water.
The rich diversity of our various ecosystems is the detracted of a new economic model for Latin America and the Caribbean. For that, you need to act together with the bases, people who do not have access to the Internet, you do not get easy information, because living in remote areas or in places where there is social exclusion. Our job is to educate these people so they are not naive prey in the hands of speculators, who wear them to sign contracts so absurd to better explore its riches and raw materials.
CRIMES or environmental credits?
The compensation mechanism based on the polluter-pays principle, re-discussed at the 15th Conference of the Parties of the United Nations - Copenhagen 2009 (COP15) (6), known for REDD (7) acronym, establish, in principle, regulation a market for appropriations for forest preservation and recovery because the plants absorb greenhouse gases when they are alive, and release carbon when laid flat.
The COOP-15 failed to reach agreement on emissions targets, resulting only in a controversial "Letter of Intent" (8) outlined the formation of a fund of US $ 100 billion proposed by US million, to be made public and private resources, affecting the position of developed countries that these market mechanisms should be considered in the financing of the goals that are set. This is one of the points of divergence with developing countries that do not want a significant portion of the resources market, by nature, is volatile and unstable, as evidenced by the recent financial crisis (9).
According to Interpol agent, Peter Younger told Reuters during the 13th Conference of the Parties of the United Nations - Bali 2007 (COP-13), possible fraud include claiming credits for nonexistent or unprotected forests.
If you are going to sell any commodity on the open market, it is creating a situation of profit and loss. There will be a fraudulent trade in carbon credits. In the future, if you are managing a factory and desperately needs credits to offset their emissions, there will be someone who can make that happen for you. Absolutely, organized crime will be involved ... It starts with bribery and intimidation of authorities that may impede business. Hence, if involved natives, there are threats and violence against those people. There forged documents. (Peter Younger, an expert on environmental crimes Interpol - International Police).
A reporter from the Associated Press of Australia, traveled through the interior of Papua New Guinea and discovered that more than 500 farmers bought fake certificates with the promise of great financial return. Others were convinced to sell their rights to exploit forest carbon credits.
The scandals around the REDD in the country were home when the nephew of Michael Somare premier was accused of forcing small farmers to sell their rights over forests.
An investigation by the Financial Times in 2007 revealed major flaws in these mechanisms, claiming that organizations paid for emission reductions that befell not. Meanwhile, other major profits obtained with carbon trading suspiciously.
The Financial Times found:
Many cases of people and organizations buying worthless credits that do not produce any carbon emissions reduction;
Industries profiting despite do little - or gaining carbon credits based on gain and efficiency with which benefited substantially;
Brokers providing services of questionable value or worthless;
A shortage of audit, making it difficult for buyers to assess the true value of carbon credits;
Companies and individuals who arcan with spending of private purchase carbon permits in the European Union, which despeñaron value because it did not result in emission reductions.
Customs officers arrested nine people in the London region on suspicion of fraud of several million dollars in trading permits for carbon emissions.
The carousel fraud, also known as the outline of the missing runner, exploited commercially exempt from some taxes, between countries.
Scammers imported exempt assets and sold with embedded tax in the price to another company, then, re-exported. Instead of reviewing the tax to the government, vendors got into the pocket value and disappeared.
Prisons confirmed fears that fraudsters - the hawkers operating in Europe and tropical forests - were attracted to a market already moved more than US $ 100 billion.
When the European Union (EU) launched the emissions trading scheme to combat climate change, the bloc likely did not consider the hypothesis that could eventually provide an incentive to pollute.
Permisiones excess (carbon credits) has been made and low prices have defeated the original purpose of the scheme.
The result was the growth of coal imports for Europe, with England coming to import record volumes in 2007.
The price was much cheaper to burn coal plants and buy permisiones to pollute, to buy cleaner natural gas as fuel.
Considers that a coal plant could buy E $ 10 per megawatt / cheaper than gas hour. But the mechanism was developed to encourage large industries and power plants to replace highly polluting sources like coal by cleaner fuels such as gas energy.
For the Italian geographer Teresa Isenburg, professor in the Department of International Studies at the University of Milan, who decades studying international relations involving the environment, the Kyoto Protocol has been harmless to stop global warming.
Teresa says the document signed in 1997 in the Japanese city served only the interests of the financial market , which may account in the European Union, where the impacts of the treaty should feel more.
Must understand that without an open society participation to occur decisions democratically "sustainable" debate is not possible to build alternatives to the market economy and new models of financial management.
When we got to the communities and show the common individual, in the sense of better orient gradually predatory action of large speculators, opportunists and fraudsters is inhibited. The only way to change the deteriorating economic model and spread around the world with mobilization.
But that a new consciousness that draws on the tripod education, information and communication is needed. It takes render it even more didactic so that society can better think about those facts.
To end the financial autophagy, environmental degradation and social injustice will need to bring ordinary citizens transparent and free orientation, so that everyone knows defend themselves and decide for truly sustainable ways.
Previously published in the journal ESPM
Carbon credits are Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) that authorize the right to pollute. The principle is simple. The environmental protection agencies issue certificates authorizing emissions regulators tons of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and other pollutants. Initially most polluting industries in the country is selected and, from there goals for reducing emissions is established. Companies receive tradable bonds in the proportion of their responsibilities. Each bond, quoted in dollars or euros, equivalent to one tonne of pollutants. Who does not meet progressive reduction goals established by law, you must buy certificates of companies rather sucedidas.
An international treaty protocol with stiffer to reduce the emission of gases that aggravate the greenhouse effect, considered, according to most scientific research as anthropogenic cause of global warming commitments. Discussed and negotiated in Kyoto in Japan in 1997, was opened for subscription on December 11, 1997 and ratified on March 15, 1999. For entry into force was necessary that 55% of countries, which together produce 55% of the emissions ratify it. And it entered into force on 16 February 2005, after Russia ratified it in November 2004.
WWF (World Wildlife Fund).
The concept of "virtual water" was created in 1990 by English scientist John Anthony Allan. The term takes into account the volume of water used, the water evaporates or is contaminated in production processes. The fabrication of a pair of chorus, for example, consumes 8,000 liters of water. Producing a hamburgués, 2400 liters. Growing cotton sufficient to produce a T-4000 liters consumed resource. Each kilogram of sugar contains about 1,500 liters of virtual water.
COP - More than 150 states signed the United Nations Convention box on Climate Change in June 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This recognizes climate change as "a common concern of humankind". They have proposed to develop a comprehensive strategy "to protect the climate system for present and future generations". Governments have become Parties to the Convention will try to achieve the ultimate objective of stabilizing "concentrations of greenhouse Invernadero in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent anthropogenic interference (caused by humans) dangerous with the climate system ". The Convention provides a "frame" within which governments can work together to develop new policies and programs that will have big implications on the way people live and work. It is a detailed text, negotiated carefully, recognizing the special concerns of different groups of countries. A part of the Convention render both the developed and the developing assumed a number of commitments. The so - called "Copenhagen Accord" was approved on December 18, 2009 with resistance and without unanimity, as required by UN procedure. Learn more at: http://www.mct.gov.br/index.php/content/view/49272.html >.
Compensation mechanisms for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation of Florestas (REDD)
See the main points of the Copenhagen agreement: http://www.bbc.co.uk/portuguese/noticias/2009/12/091219_acordoanalise.shtml >.
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- Amyra El Khalili é professora environmental and socio economics editor Movimento das Mulheres pela networks P @ Z! and Aliança RECOS - Networks of Cooperação Comunitária Sem Fronteiras. Do e-book author Commodities ambientais em missão peace : novo economic model for Latin America eo Caribbean. São Paulo: Nova Consciência, 2009. 271 p.
Magazine Dialogos Del Sur