In Brazil, researchers at the Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM) have genetically engineered a fungus to produce a cocktail of enzymes that break down the carbohydrates in biomass, such as sugarcane trash (tops and leaves) and bagasse, into fermentable sugar for industrially efficient conversion into biofuel.
The development of low-cost enzyme cocktails is one of the main challenges in producing second-generation ethanol.
The fungus Trichoderma reesei is one of the most prolific producers of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and is widely used in the biotechnology industry. To enhance its productivity as a biofactory for the enzyme cocktail in question, the researchers introduced six genetic modifications into RUT-C30, a publicly available strain of the fungus. They patented the process and reported it in an article published in the journal Biotechnology for Biofuels.